Relations between the two nations have continued since then, but direct political exchange began only in the Meiji era — , when Japan embarked on the process of modernisation. The Anglo-Japanese Alliance was ended on 17 August As a result, during the two World Wars , the INA adopted the "an enemy of our enemy is our friend" attitude, legacy that is still controversial today given the war crimes committed by Imperial Japan and its allies. Many Indian independence movement activists escaped from British rule and stayed in Japan.
Nair , a student from India, became an Independence Movement activist. In Tokyo Imperial University set up a chair in Sanskrit and Pali , with a further chair in Comparative religion being set up in In this environment, a number of Indian students came to Japan in the early twentieth century, founding the Oriental Youngmen's Association in Their anti-British political activity caused consternation to the Indian Government, following a report in the London Spectator. Over 2 million Indians participated in the war; many served in combat against the Japanese who conquered Burma and reached the Indian border.
They joined primarily because of the very harsh, often fatal conditions in POW camps.
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Bose was eager for the INA to participate in any invasion of India, and persuaded several Japanese that a victory such as Mutaguchi anticipated would lead to the collapse of British rule in India. The idea that their western boundary would be controlled by a more friendly government was attractive.
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The judgement of Justice Radhabinod Pal is remembered even today in Japan. A relatively well-known result of the two nations' was in , when India sent the Tokyo Zoo two elephants to cheer the spirits of the defeated Japanese empire. India refused to attend the San Francisco Peace Conference in due to its concerns over limitations imposed upon Japanese sovereignty and national independence. India's iron ore helped Japan's recovery from World War II devastation, and following Japanese Prime Minister Nobusuke Kishi 's visit to India in , Japan started providing yen loans to India in , as the first yen loan aid extended by Japanese government.
Since the s, however, efforts were made to strengthen bilateral ties. Relations between the two nations reached a brief low in as a result of Pokhran-II , an Indian nuclear weapons test that year. Japan imposed sanctions on India following the test, which included the suspension of all political exchanges and the cutting off of economic assistance. These sanctions were lifted three years later. Relations improved exponentially following this period, as bilateral ties between the two nations improved once again,  to the point where the Japanese prime minister, Shinzo Abe was to be the chief guest at India's Republic Day parade.
His visit further strengthened the ties between the two countries, and resulted in several key agreements, including the establishment of a "Special Strategic Global Partnership". Modi visited Japan for the second time as Prime Minister in November During the meeting, India and Japan signed the "Agreement for Cooperation in Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy", a landmark civil nuclear agreement, under which Japan will supply nuclear reactors, fuel and technology to India. India is not a signatory to the non-Proliferation Treaty NPT , and is the only non-signatory to receive an exemption from Japan.
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Japan is currently [ when? This is the single largest overseas project being financed by Japan and reflected growing economic partnership between the two nations.
India is also one of the only three countries in the world with whom Japan has a security pact. As of March , Japan was the third largest investor in India. Kenichi Yoshida, a director of Softbridge Solutions Japan, stated in late that Indian engineers were becoming the backbone of Japan's IT industry and that "it is important for Japanese industry to work together with India". Under the memorandum, any Japanese coming to India for business or work will be straightway granted a three-year visa and similar procedures will be followed by Japan.
Other highlights of this visit includes abolition of customs duties on 94 per cent of trade between the two nations over the next decade. As per the Agreement, tariffs will be removed on almost 90 per cent of Japan's exports to India and 97 per cent of India's exports to Japan Trade between the two nations has also steadily been growing. India and Japan also have close military ties. They have shared interests in maintaining the security of sea-lanes in the Asia-Pacific and Indian Ocean, and in co-operation for fighting international crime, terrorism, piracy and proliferation of weapons of mass destruction.
Japanese Prime Minister Shinzo Abe is seen by some to be an " Indophile " and, with rising tensions in territorial disputes with Japan's neighbors, has advocated closer security cooperation with India. India is also negotiating to purchase US-2 amphibious aircraft for the Indian Navy. Japan and India have strong cultural ties, based mainly on Japanese Buddhism , which remains widely practiced through Japan even today.
The two nations announced , the 50th anniversary year of Indo-Japan Cultural Agreement, as the Indo-Japan Friendship and Tourism-Promotion Year, holding cultural events in both the countries. Osamu Tezuka wrote a biographical manga Buddha from to On 10 April , a Japanese delegation proposed to raise funds and provide other support for rebuilding the world famous ancient Nalanda University, an ancient Buddhist centre of learning in Bihar, into a major international institution of education. Tamil movies are very popular in Japan and Rajnikanth is the most popular Indian star in this country.
From 3 July , Japan issues multiple entry visas for the short term stay of Indian nationals. This is the first time that Japan signed such deal with a non-signatory of Non-Proliferation Treaty. The deal gives Japan the right to supply nuclear reactors , fuel and technology to India. This deal aimed to help India build the six nuclear reactors in southern India, increasing nuclear energy capacity ten-fold by In August , the two countries announced the establishment of the Japan-India Coordination Forum JICF for Development of North-Eastern Region, described by India as "a coordination forum to identify priority development areas of cooperation for development" of northeast India.
The forum will focus on strategic projects aimed at improving connectivity, roads, electric infrastructure, food processing, disaster management, and promoting organic farming and tourism in northeast India. A Japanese embassy spokesperson stated that the development of the northeast was a "priority" for India and its Act East Policy, and that Japan placed a "special emphasis on cooperation in North East for its geographical importance connecting India to South-East Asia and historical ties".
An injured figure donning the British flag is falling from the globe. These posters emphasise on intense psychological conversion, and they were distributed to troops and civilians, particularly along the border regions. They also fluttered down from circling airplanes across the battlefields in Europe, North Africa and Burma, hoping to convert the Indian soldier.
It played on their homesickness, anxieties about hunger and home and on their desire for the war to end. Each poster evokes a moment of misery under the Empire, and some even attempt to give alternative outcomes, should India free herself from the shackles of the Raj. The approach to south Asian figures is strange and sardonic, in a sweeping, over-generalised way — men and women drawn out as dark and meagre, with protruding eyes and a pointy chin. The highly stylised approach is evocative of cartoons, even manga, in places.
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The colours, still remarkably well-preserved, are often either garish or muted in tones — depending upon the printing techniques of lithography or offset. Several figures are repeated. Among them are the rotund, crude caricature of Winston Churchill—portrayed as the ambassador of the Empire—and the figure of a dark, sparsely-clothed, furious-looking Indian, who is often holding a weapon over the British Prime Minister.
This dark, turbaned figure, appearing time and time again, can be viewed as a metaphor for self-empowerment against the Empire. There is a desperate image of a woman—perhaps the embodiment of Mother India—holding a dying body and standing among a sea of bodies at the Jallianwala Bagh massacre of This is the golden opportunity for revenge. The sheer consideration for detail and nuances from history in the poster is really quite remarkable. In another image, Churchill can be seen at the centre of a web, his head placed upon the body of a spider that has spun a web of submission.
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In his hands is a bag of gold coins—riches from the subcontinent—and around him are submissive figures of Indians in pleading or praying positions. They are clothed like ascetics, and their hands are shown folded in devotion, portraying the peace-loving nature of the locals. Awake, arise and destroy the English shackles. Another poster shows Churchill seated at a table eating meat carved in the shape of India—allegorical of the sheer consumption of the subcontinent by the Empire—while a British officer carves the form of a Union Jack into the back of a withering Indian, whose hands and feet are bound with chains.
Japanese Invasion of India During World War II
Behind Churchill is a dark figure, holding a stick and coming towards him in anger. Yet another poster evokes the tragedy of the Great Bengal Famine, depicting a British couple, possibly based on Churchill and his wife, indulging in a lavish meal of succulent meat and wine, while beneath the dinner table lie starved Indians.
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