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The Democrats insisted that Congress should continue the practice followed since , which was that no vote objected to should be counted except by the concurrence of both houses. The House had a solid Democratic majority; by throwing out the vote of one state, it could elect Tilden. Facing an unprecedented constitutional crisis , the Congress of the United States passed a law on January 29, that formed a member Electoral Commission to settle the result.

Five members were selected from each house of Congress, and they were joined by five members of the Supreme Court. William M.

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Evarts served as counsel for the Republican Party. The Compromise of might have helped the Democrats accept this electoral commission as well. The majority party in each house named three members and the minority party two. As the Republicans controlled the Senate and the Democrats the House of Representatives, this yielded five Democratic and five Republican members of the Commission. Of the Supreme Court justices, two Republicans and two Democrats were chosen, with the fifth to be selected by these four.

The justices first selected a political independent, Justice David Davis. According to one historian, "[n]o one, perhaps not even Davis himself, knew which presidential candidate he preferred. Democrats in the Illinois legislature believed that they had purchased Davis' support by voting for him. However, they had made a miscalculation; instead of staying on the Supreme Court so that he could serve on the Commission, he promptly resigned as a Justice to take his Senate seat. Bradley , who was considered the most impartial remaining member of the court. This selection proved decisive.

It was drawing perilously near to Inauguration Day. The commission met on January Eminent counsel appeared for each side.

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There were double sets of returns from every one of the states named. The commission first decided not to question any returns that were prima facie lawful. The commission adjourned on March 2; two days later Hayes was inaugurated without disturbance. During intense closed-door meetings, Democratic leaders agreed reluctantly to accept Hayes as president in return for the withdrawal of federal troops from the last two still-occupied Southern states, South Carolina and Louisiana.

Republican leaders in return agreed on a number of handouts and entitlements, including Federal subsidies for a transcontinental railroad line through the South. Although some of these promises were not kept, in particular the railroad proposal, it was enough for the time being to avert a dangerous standoff. The returns accepted by the Commission put Hayes' margin of victory in South Carolina at votes, the second-closest popular vote margin in a decisive state in U. Bush was five votes, as opposed to Hayes' one vote.

It is not possible to conclude definitively what the result would have been if a fair election had been held without the violence and intimidation throughout the South that disenfranchised many African Americans made eligible to vote under the 15th Amendment. Upon his defeat, Tilden said, "I can retire to public life with the consciousness that I shall receive from posterity the credit of having been elected to the highest position in the gift of the people, without any of the cares and responsibilities of the office.

According to the Commission's rulings, of the 2, counties and independent cities making returns, Tilden won in 1, One county 0. While the Greenback ticket did not have a major impact on the election's outcome, attracting slightly under one percent of the popular vote, Cooper nonetheless had the strongest performance of any third-party presidential candidate since John Bell in The Greenbacks' best showings were in Kansas, where Cooper earned just over six percent of the vote, and Indiana, where he earned 17, votes, far exceeding Tilden's roughly 5,vote margin of victory over Hayes in that state.

The election of was the last one held before the end of the Reconstruction era, which sought to protect the rights of African Americans in the South who usually voted for Republican presidential candidates. No antebellum slave state would be carried by a Republican again until the realignment that saw William McKinley carry Delaware, Maryland, West Virginia and Kentucky. No Republican presidential candidate until Warren G. Harding in would carry any states that seceded and joined the Confederacy; that year he carried Tennessee, which never experienced a long period of occupation by Federal troops and was completely "reconstructed" well before the first presidential election of the Reconstruction period None of the Southern states that experienced long periods of occupation by Federal troops was carried by a Republican again until Herbert Hoover in when he won Texas, Florida, North Carolina, and Virginia.

This proved the last election in which the Republican candidate won Louisiana until , when Dwight D. Eisenhower carried it, and the last in which the Republican candidate won South Carolina until , when Barry Goldwater did. The next time those two states voted against the Democrats was when they supported the " Dixiecrat " candidate Strom Thurmond in Although marked the last competitive two-party election in the South before Democratic dominance of the South through and of the border states through , it was also the last election as of in which the Democrats won the pro-Union counties of Mitchell in North Carolina, [20] Wayne and Henderson in Tennessee, and Lewis County, Kentucky.

Cartogram of presidential election results by county. The presidential election of is a major theme of Gore Vidal 's novel From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

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For related races, see United States elections. This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. Presidential election results map. Numbers indicate the number of electoral votes allotted to each state. Main article: Republican National Convention. Main article: Democratic National Convention.

Main article: Greenback National Convention. Further information: Electoral Commission United States. Popular vote Tilden. Electoral vote Hayes. Results by county, shaded according to winning candidate's percentage of the vote. The American Presidency Project. University of California, Santa Barbara. Retrieved November 9, Participation in Elections for President and U. Representatives: to " PDF.

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Census Bureau. Archived from the original PDF on October 24, Retrieved February 7, Archived from the original on February 10, Retrieved June 30, The Complete Book of U. New York: Gramercy.


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History of the Republican party in Ohio. Volume I. Chicago: The Lewis Publishing Company. Retrieved May 19, June 21, Retrieved February 17, A "bull-dose" was a bull sized whipping used to intimidate African Americans in the Southern United States. The racist roots of 'bulldozer ' ". Oxford Dictionaries. Oxford University Press. Retrieved October 21, November 12, The New York Times. BBC News. December 12, Retrieved November 28, Benjamin History of the United States. Charles Scribner's Sons. Fraud of the Century: Rutherford B.

Hayes, Samuel Tilden and the Stolen Election of New York: Simon and Schuster, pp. Tilden: The Electoral College Controversy of — Issue 9 of Buttons and Ballots, in Spring Dave Leip's Atlas of U.


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  • Presidential Elections. Retrieved July 27, National Archives and Records Administration. Retrieved July 31, Retrieved May 7, Harris seems to think that a woman of color who is an ex-prosecutor will check a range of boxes for Democratic voters. She has so far staked out a broad platform, trying to appeal to a wide swath of the party.

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    Mainstream Democrats. Sure, maybe. The year-old openly gay mayor of South Bend, Indiana, and Afghan War veteran has gone from near-anonymity to buzzy-candidate status in his first couple of months in the race. Buttigieg has slowly climbed in the polls, grabbing attention for crisp answers and an almost Obamaesque demeanor; he has the support of some Obama alumni.

    He hopes to reach midwestern voters who deserted the Democrats in Castro was the mayor of San Antonio, Texas, before serving as secretary of housing and urban development under Barack Obama from to A former four-term congressman from Maryland, he might be even less known than Pete Buttigieg, who at least has a memorable name. Is he ever!

    Delaney announced way back in June , hoping that a head start could make up for his lack of name recognition. Delaney, a successful businessman, is pitching himself as a centrist problem-solver. Gabbard, 37, has represented Hawaii in the U. House since She previously served in Iraq. Gabbard is likely to draw support from Sanders backers. Yang is a tech entrepreneur who created the test-preparation company Manhattan Prep and then Venture for America, which tries to incubate start-ups outside New York and the Bay Area, and which is based in New York.

    Our deepest fear is that we are powerful beyond measure. House in Williamson has a lot of fans, but whether they really want her as president is another question. A senator from New Jersey, he was previously the social-media-savvy mayor of Newark. He launched his campaign on February 1. In the Senate, Booker has been big on criminal-justice reform, including marijuana liberalization.